Analysis of the Phytochemical Contents and Anti-microbial Activity of Ocimum basilicum L.

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Microbiology, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan Branch, Lahijan, Iran

2 Department of Biotechnology, Lahijan branch, Islamic Azad University of Iran

3 Department of Agriculture, Lahijan branch, Islamic Azad University of Iran

4 Department of Chemistry, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University of Iran

5 Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Microbiology Department, Baku, Azerbaijan


Medicinal plants are a source of great economic value all over the world. Nature has bestowed on us a very rich botanical wealth and large number of diverse types of plants grows in different parts of the country. In this study the in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic, methanolic and water extracts of the stem bark of O.basilicum were investigated. The extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 5 to 12, 8 to 20 and 0 to 8 mm for ethanol, methanol and water extracts, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ethanol extract was between 0.5 and 6.25 mg/ml while that of methanol extract ranged from 0.5 to 10 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for ethanol extract ranged between 2.0 and 12.50 mg/ml, while this value for methanol ranged from 2.0 to 20 mg/ml. All the extracts exhibited appreciable activity against Candida albicans. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the extracts against C. albicans ranged between 15 and 18, 15 and 20 and 5 and 10 mm for ethanol, methanol and water extracts, respectively. Primary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponin, steroids, tannins, glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids in the extracts. The ability of the crude stem extracts of O. basilicum to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential which may be employed in the management of microbial infections.It is also concluded that O. basilicum stem bark could be a potential source of active antimicrobial agents, and future works will be concentrated on the in vivo potencies and toxicological profiles.